* Dave Hansen <dave.hansen(a)linux.intel.com> wrote:
On 05/07/2015 10:42 AM, Dan Williams wrote:
> On Thu, May 7, 2015 at 10:36 AM, Ingo Molnar <mingo(a)kernel.org> wrote:
>> * Dan Williams <dan.j.williams(a)intel.com> wrote:
>> So is there anything fundamentally wrong about creating struct
>> page backing at mmap() time (and making sure aliased mmaps share
>> struct page arrays)?
> Something like "get_user_pages() triggers memory hotplug for
> persistent memory", so they are actual real struct pages? Can we
> do memory hotplug at that granularity?
We've traditionally limited them to SECTION_SIZE granularity, which
is 128MB IIRC. There are also assumptions in places that you can do
page++ within a MAX_ORDER block if !CONFIG_HOLES_IN_ZONE.
I really don't think that's very practical: memory hotplug is slow,
it's really not on the same abstraction level as mmap(), and the zone
data structures are also fundamentally very coarse: not just because
RAM ranges are huge, but also so that the pfn->page transformation
stays relatively simple and fast.
But, in all practicality, a lot of those places are in code like the
buddy allocator. If your PTEs all have _PAGE_SPECIAL set and we're
not ever expecting these fake 'struct page's to hit these code
paths, it probably doesn't matter.
You can probably get away with just allocating PAGE_SIZE worth of
'struct page' (which is 64) and mapping it in to vmemmap. The
worst case is that you'll eat 1 page of space for each outstanding
page of I/O. That's a lot better than 2MB of temporary 'struct
page' space per page of I/O that it would take with a traditional
So I think the main value of struct page is if everyone on the system
sees the same struct page for the same pfn - not just the temporary IO
The idea of having very temporary struct page arrays misses the point
I think: if struct page is used as essentially an IO sglist then most
of the synchronization properties are lost: then we might as well use
the real deal in that case and skip the dynamic allocation and use
pfns directly and avoid the dynamic allocation overhead.
Stable, global page-struct descriptors are a given for real RAM, where
we allocate a struct page for every page in nice, large, mostly linear
We'd really need that for pmem too, to get the full power of struct
page: and that means allocating them in nice, large, predictable
places - such as on the device itself ...
It might even be 'scattered' across the device, with 64 byte struct
page size we can pack 64 descriptors into a single page, so every 65
pages we could have a page-struct page.
Finding a pmem page's struct page would thus involve rounding it
modulo 65 and reading that page.
The problem with that is fourfold:
- that we now turn a very kernel internal API and data structure into
an ABI. If struct page grows beyond 64 bytes it's a problem.
- on bootup (or device discovery time) we'd have to initialize all
the page structs. We could probably do this in a hierarchical way,
by dividing continuous pmem ranges into power-of-two groups of
blocks, and organizing them like the buddy allocator does.
- 1.5% of storage space lost.
- will wear-leveling properly migrate these 'hot' pages around?
The alternative would be some global interval-rbtree of struct page
backed pmem ranges.
Beyond the synchronization problems of such a data structure (which
looks like a nightmare) I don't think it's even feasible: especially
if there's a filesystem on the pmem device then the block allocations
could be physically fragmented (and there's no fundamental reason why
they couldn't be fragmented), so a continuous mmap() of a file on it
will yield wildly fragmented device-pfn ranges, exploding the rbtree.
Think 1 million node interval-rbtree with an average depth of 20:
cachemiss country for even simple lookups - not to mention the
freeing/recycling complexity of unused struct pages to not allow it to
grow too large.
I might be wrong though about all this :)